Coronaviruses are a family of Viruses that can cause a wide range of ailments, from mild upper respiratory diseases such as the common cold to severe diseases such as MERS and SARS. They are named with the name “Corona”, which means the Crown in Latin.

The new Coronavirus was first introduced on December 29, 2019, with the diagnosis of lung infection (pneumonia) in 4 people working in a market selling seafood and live animals in Wuhan, China, and many customers who came here on the same days. Day 31, December 31, 2019, WHO was alarmed against various severe pneumonia cases such as these. The virus seen in these cases was found to be different from the previously known viruses, and raised a concern as the effects and consequences were unpredictable, and this virus, which was confirmed by Chinese officials in the coming days, was reported to belong to the Coronavirus family such as SARS and MERS. In addition, this newly detected virus was called “2019-nCoV – Novel (New) Coronavirus”. The genomic structure of 2019-nCoV has been shown to be 70% similar to SARS.

Viruses in the coronavirus family are generally detected in various animal species such as camels and bats. These zoonotic-based viruses can change over time and tend to become contaminated and show the main danger when they become infected among people. Similarly, it was explained that nCoV initially the virus could only be transmitted from animal to human; However, current developments show that nCoV can be transmitted from person to person, unfortunately.

Source: https://www.foxbusiness.com/lifestyle/china-lockdown-coronavirus-wuhan-mayor

The disease is transmitted by virus-secreted secretions that come into contact with the mucous membranes of healthy people in close contact (up to 1 meter) in situations such as coughing or sneezing. Among the arguments that strengthen human-to-human transmission, 16 health workers who come into contact with the disease are sick and people who have never visited the animal market in China are infected. However, it is not known how infectious it is. In addition, according to the information obtained so far, it can be said that 2019-nCoV is not contaminated with food.

NCoV’s clinic has a wide incubation period of 2-14 days and features such as sudden onset of high fever, shortness of breath and cough symptoms at the end of this period. It has also been noted that some people may have complaints such as sore throat and runny nose. The tables in which the disease progresses fatally are generally; While it is fatal in people with advanced age and diabetes (diabetes), diseases that suppress the defense system, cancer, organ failure, lung diseases, it is milder in young and healthy adults.

Source: https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/01/cloneofcloneofcloneofcloneofchina-battles-corona-200130230453300.html

Source: https://www.mapsofindia.com/my-india/health/novel-2019-ncov-prevention-of-coronavirus-and-safety-measures-for-the-public

Currently, a vaccine that protects from the disease has not been produced. The most effective method to do is to avoid close contact with sick people. Apart from this, it is possible to take care not to get sick, especially for other viruses that cause respiratory infections (flu, cold viruses, etc.), not to touch the unclean hands, especially the mucosal surfaces such as mouth or eyes.

In order to prevent the spread of the disease to the world in Wuhan city of China, the use of public transportation is prohibited, entry and exit to the city has been stopped and citizens are required to use masks. Despite all these actions, there is no state in China where the disease is not seen, and as of January 30, 2020, there are individuals infected with nCoV in 18 different countries.

An effective treatment for viruses in the coronavirus family has not yet been developed. For this reason, supportive treatments are provided only to reduce symptoms. For all these reasons, people who have recently traveled or have come to China and come into contact with them should definitely go to the nearest healthcare facility if they show symptoms such as fever, shortness of breath or cough.

Furkan Kizilisik

Biruni University, Medical Faculty

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